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Blood-borne transmission can be through needle-sharing during intravenous drug use, needle stick injury, transfusion of contaminated blood or blood product, or medical injections with unsterilized equipment.The risk from sharing a needle during drug injection is between 0.63 and 2.4% per act, with an average of 0.8%.
Since the WHO's staging system does not require laboratory tests, it is suited to the resource-restricted conditions encountered in developing countries, where it can also be used to help guide clinical management.
The most effective vaccine trial to date, RV 144, was published in 2009 and found a partial reduction in the risk of transmission of roughly 30%, stimulating some hope in the research community of developing a truly effective vaccine.
Treatment recommendations for children are somewhat different from those for adults.
During primary infection, the level of HIV may reach several million virus particles per milliliter of blood. This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections.
T cells are essential to the immune response and without them, the body cannot fight infections or kill cancerous cells.
Many species of mammals are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period.